Samples considered as outliers. Mol Nutr Food Res. The remaining part of the colon was used for colonocyte isolation. Funding bodies had no role in the design of the study and collection, analysis, and interpretation of data and in writing the manuscript. Colonocyte isolation Colonic epithelial cells colonocytes were isolated as previously described [ 25 ]. Cobo E, Chadee K.
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A linear model was fitted using lmFit function, with the diet as a fixed effect. Trends Food Sci Technol.
In rats fed with the HPD, the expression of the apoptosis marker caspase 3 was unchanged in colonocytes, while there was a massive downregulation of cell death-related pathways at the mRNA level. Three differences in the experimental designs of the two studies may explain these discrepancies.
Epithelial response to a high-protein diet in rat colon
An HPD also modifies goblet cell distribution in rat colonic epithelium together with an increased gene expression of mucin 3 Muc3 [ 17 ] while it does not change colonic mucosal immune response except for a decreased interleukin-6 Il-6 mRNA expression [ 17 ].
Based on the predefined hypothesis that HPD could regulate mucus secretion [ 171834 ], mucins gene expression was specifically compared in the colonocytes of rats fed an HPD or an NPD Fig. Tissue-specific henelink of gene expression in the epithelium and stroma of normal colon in healthy individuals in an aspirin intervention trial.
Repartition of these functions into biological categories is shown in Fig.
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In conclusion, these experiments showed that the HPD did not geenlink colonic barrier function in rat distal colon. These transcriptional changes induced by a short-term HPD were not associated with detrimental effects on the colonic epithelium in terms of genotoxicity, epithelial renewal and barrier integrity. Biotransformation of xenobiotics in the human colon and rectum and its association with colorectal cancer.
However, in Ussing chamber experiments, transmural resistance and apparent permeability to FD4 that cross the epithelium by the paracellular route were similar in rat fed an NPD or an HPD, indicating that colonic barrier integrity was not altered. Differential effects of dietary whey, casein and soya on colonic DNA damage and large bowel SCFA in rats fed diets low and high in resistant starch.
Promote cracked software, or other illegal content. Fermentable fiber ameliorates fermentable protein-induced changes in microbial ecology, but not the mucosal response, in the colon of piglets.
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Table 1 Composition of the experimental diets. In the present study, potential mechanisms for a reduced contact of the microbiota and its metabolites with the epithelium are the reinforcement of the mucus barrier and the increase in antimicrobial peptides secretion [ 4243 ].
The dataset generated and analyzed during the current study are available in the Gene Expression Omnibus with the accession number GSE DNA damages in colonocytes were then evaluated by the comet assay.
Significantly enriched functions related to cellular metabolism in the set of genes differentially expressed in colonocytes isolated from rats fed a high-protein diet compared to rats fed a normal-protein diet.
You are logged in as. Enter a name to help others recognize your sharing file or device optional. These results are consistent with our previous electronic microscopy observation showing that there was no alteration of tight junction structure in colonic epithelium of rats fed an HPD [ 10 ] and with another study showing that colonic barrier function geneink preserved in HPD-fed piglets [ 20 ].
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All the statistics were obtained with Ingenuity Pathways Software. The HPD-induced downregulation of pathways implicated in epithelial cell junction and adhesion of colonocytes to extracellular matrix might jeopardize barrier function.
The deleterious metabolic and genotoxic effects of the bacterial metabolite p-cresol on colonic epithelial cells. Connecting the Star printer and device to the same network. Effects of the high-protein diet on barrier function in colon Based on the predefined hypothesis that HPD could regulate mucus secretion [ 171834 ], mucins gene expression was specifically compared in the colonocytes of rats fed an HPD or an NPD Fig.
To validate microarray data, the expression level of four genes of interest was measured by qRT-PCR Additional file 4: Modulation of protein fermentation does not affect fecal water toxicity: Enter the e-mail address of the recipient Add your own personal message: Many significantly enriched functions geenlink the set of DE lsn belonged to cell metabolism-related categories.
In contrast, the HPD upregulated the expression of genes related to cell proliferation and chemical barrier function. Statistical analyses were performed with Prism 7 sofware GraphPad.